Science, Art and Religion

Register      Login

VOLUME 2 , ISSUE 1--2 ( January-June, 2023 ) > List of Articles


Osteoporosis: The New Paradigm

Dalibor Krpan

Keywords : Bone histomorphometry, Bone strength, Magnetic resonance therapy, Osteoporosis, Osteoporotic fractures

Citation Information : Krpan D. Osteoporosis: The New Paradigm. 2023; 2 (1--2):1-5.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11005-0050

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 29-09-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2023; The Author(s).


Osteoporosis is one of the common diseases. Due to the serious complications, which cause disabilities and significant deterioration of the quality of life, it also presents a large public health problem, as well as a financial burden for the patients, their families, and the whole of society. The common clinical practice widely applied for >20 years has been based on the paradigm introduced on the hypothesis that osteoporosis is the consequence of decreasing bone mass due to increasing bone reabsorption over bone formation which makes bone prone to fractures. Based on that, bone densitometry has been introduced as a “golden” diagnostic standard and pharmacotherapy, with the goal of reducing bone reabsorption, has been introduced as a standard treatment. However, despite various drugs, the problem of osteoporosis is not solved or decreased. Also, complications such as drug adverse events and fractures after long-term pharmacotherapy presents a serious problem. Additionally, recent scientific research showed that osteoporosis is much more complex than was thought. So, clinical experience as well as scientific evidence clearly indicate the need for a significant change in clinical approach by introducing a new paradigm. According to the fact that osteoporosis is caused by the deterioration of bone matrix and bone architecture under the influence of various genetic, biomechanical, and biochemical factors, the new paradigm needs to be based on the principles of personalized and integrative medicine with the goal of improving biomechanical and metabolic balance, with stimulation of bone and cartilage regeneration, and thus improvement of the functional capacity of the musculoskeletal organ as a whole.

  1. Fragility fractures in Europe: burden, management and opportunities [Internet]. International Osteoporosis Foundation: SpringerLink; c2020 Apr 19 [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
  2. WHO Health Statistics and Information System: Projections of mortality and causes of death 2016 to 2060 [Internet]. World Health Organization; c2018 Oct [cited 2021 Feb 13]. Available from:
  3. Oral bisphosphonates may not decrease hip fracture risk in elderly Spanish women: a nested case-control study [Internet]. PubMed BMJ Open; c2013 Feb [cited 2023 Apr 26]. Available from:
  4. Crilly RG, Kloseck M, Chesworth B, et al. Comparison of hip fracture and osteoporosis medication prescription rates across Canadian provinces. Osteoporosis Int 2014;25(1): 205–210. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-013-2453-z
  5. Galić E, Krpan D, Mirat J, et al. Diversity of bone cell activity as a histomorphometric feature of idiopathic osteoporosis in men. Aging Male 2010;13(1):18–24. DOI: 10.3109/13685530903254374
  6. Krpan D, Lajtman Z, Erceg I, et al. Renal osteodystrophy based on bone histomorphometry: 20 years of experience. Dialysis and transplantation 2004;33(8).
  7. Schett G, Kleyer A, Perricone C, et al. Diabetes is an independent predictor for severe osteoarthritis: results from a longitudinal cohort study. Diabetes Care 2013;36(2):403–409. DOI: 10.2337/dc12-0924
  8. Krpan D. Why We Need the New Paradigm of the Chronic Skeleton Diseases? CPQ Orthopaedics 2019;2:1 Scholar's Paper.
  9. Krpan D. Comprehensive approach to personalized medicine into chronic musculoskeletal diseases - The “BaR” concept. In: Bodiroga Vukobrat N, Rukavina D, Pavelić K, Sander GG, editors. Personalized Medicine in Healthcare Systems. Vol 5. New York: Springer; 2019. p. 314–325.
  10. Škare M, Pržiklas Družeta R, Kraljević Pavelić S. Novel perspectives in economics of personalized medicine and healthcare systems. Nova Science Publishers 2022:387–396.
  11. Krpan, Dalibor. Tae do, exercises for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Zagreb: Repro-Color; 2002.
  12. Auerbach B, Yacoub A, Melzer C. Prospective study over a period of 1 year in respect to the effectiveness of the MBST® - Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Therapy as used during the conservative therapy of Gonarthrosis. Orthopadische Praxis, Taucha. Lecture, Poster Presentation at the 1st Collective Congress Orthopedic - Accident Surgery. Congress Catalogue 2005 Oct;Abstract: Poster R2-446.
  13. Digel I, Kurulgan E, Linder PT, et al. Decrease in extracellular collagen crosslinking after NMR magnetic field application in skin fibroblasts. J Int Feder Medi Biol Eng 2007;45(1):91–97. DOI: 10.1007/s11517-006-0144-z
  14. Fagerer N. Use of magnetic resonance as new therapy options for osteoarthritis. Arzt Praxis 2007;927:180–182.
  15. Froböse I, Eckey U, Reiser M, et al. Evaluation of the effectiveness three-dimensional pulsating electromagnetic fields of the multibio signal therapy (MBST®) on the regeneration of cartilage structures. Orthopadische Praxis 2000;36:510–515.
  16. Handschuh T, Melzer C. Behandlung der osteoporose mit MBST® KernSpin. ORTHODOC 5 (Sonderdruck) 2008;1–4.
  17. He J, Zhang Y, Chen J, et al. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the expression of NFATc1 and CAII in mouse osteoclast-like cells. Aging Clin Exp Res 2014;27(1):13–19. DOI: 10.1007/s40520-014-0239-6
  18. Jansen H, Brockamp T, Paletta JR, et al. Does have low-energy NMR an effect on gonarthrosis in rabbits-scientific lecture. 52nd Annual Meeting Orthopedic Research Society 2006.
  19. Jing D, Cai J, Wu Y, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic fields partially preserve bone mass, microarchitecture, and strength by promoting bone formation in hindlimb-suspended rats. J Bone Miner Res 2014;29(10):2250–2261. DOI: 10.1002/jbmr.2260
  20. Krpan D. MBST–nuclear magnetic resonance therapy the new possibility of osteoarthritis and osteoporosis treatment. Balneoclimatologia, Dijagnostica I Lecenje Osteoporoze 2011;35:61–66.
  21. Krpan D. MBST-nuclear magnetic resonance therapy in the treatment of osteoarthritis, the long-term follow up – case report. Biomed J Sci Tech Res 2018;11(2).
  22. Krpan D, Kullich W. Nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (MBST) in the treatment of osteoporosis. Case report study. Clin Cases Miner Bone Metab 2017;14(2):235–238. DOI: 10.11138/ccmbm/2017.14.1.235
  23. Krpan D, Stritzinger B, Lukenda I, et al. Non-pharmaceutical treatment of osteoporosis with nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (NMR-therapy). Period biol 2015;117(1):160–165.
  24. Kullich W. New active principle: therapy with nuclear magnetic resonance. Scientific lecture at the “special pain therapy” course. Pain diploma of the Austrian Medical Chamber Leogang Austria 2014.
  25. Kullich W, Ausserwinkler M. Functional improvement in osteoarthritis of finger joints with therapeutic use of nuclear magnetic resonance. Orthopädische Praxis 2008;44(6): 287–290.
  26. Kullich W, Overbeck J, Spiegel HU. One year survey with multicenter data of more than 4500 patients with degenerative rheumatic disease treated with therapeutic nuclear magnetic resonance. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2013;26(1):93–104. DOI: 10.3233/bmr-2012-00362
  27. Kullich W, Schwann H, Walcher J, et al. The effect of MBST®-nuclear magnetic resonance therapy with a complex 3- dimensional electromagnetic nuclear resonance field on patients with low back pain. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil 2006;19:79–87.
  28. Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Weigl L, Kullich W, et al. Influence of NMR therapy on metabolism of osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma cell lines. J Int Bone Miner Soc 2009;44(2):295. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2009.03.537
  29. Steinecker-Frohnwieser B, Weigl L, Weberhofer G, et al. The influence of nuclear magnetic resonance therapy (NMRT) and interleukin Il1- β stimulation on Cal 78 chondrosarcoma cells and C28/I2 chondrocytes. J Orthop Rheumatol 2014;1(3):9.
  30. Temiz-Artmann A, Linder P, Kayser P, et al. NMR in vitro effects on proliferation, apoptosis, and viability of human chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2005;27(5):391–394. DOI: 10.1358/mf.2005.27.6.896831
  31. Zhou J, Chen S, Guo H, et al. Pulsed electromagnetic field stimulates osteoprotegerin and reduces RANKL expression in ovariectomized rats. Rheumatol Int 2013;33(5):1135–1141. DOI: 10.1007/s00296-012-2499-9
  32. Oliva R, Egg M. Effect of nuclear magnetic resonance on the circadian clock and the hypoxia signaling pathway. Institute of Zoology, University of Innsbruck, Austria, the scientific meeting 2017.
PDF Share
PDF Share

© Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) LTD.