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VOLUME 3 , ISSUE 1--2 ( January-June, 2024 ) > List of Articles

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The Biblical Story of Telomeres

Drago Kraljević

Keywords : Aging, Bible, Religion, Telomeres

Citation Information : Kraljević D. The Biblical Story of Telomeres. 2024; 3 (1--2):1-16.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11005-0065

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 27-03-2024

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2024; The Author(s).


Abstract

Human aging is a complex process that is not yet fully understood by science. Accordingly, scientists mostly agree that the term aging applies to a correlated set of declines in functioning, mainly underlined by genetic material damage, telomere shortening, epigenetic changes, and deregulated metabolic processes, especially nutrient sensing. One of the aging indicators, namely the length of telomeres, which are located at the ends of chromosomes, has been acknowledged as a key marker of biological age. Over time, the telomeres shorten, and this contraction causes a diminishment in the life span. The article mentions the state of the Earth before the flood, the antediluvial patriarch and their longevity, and the views of famous theologians, sociologists, philosophers, and general thinkers on the problems of aging, longevity, and biblical interpretation. At the end of the text, a general overview of religions and scientific approaches to human life spans is given.


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  1. The words of the Holy Scriptures contained in the Old and New Testaments express truths for believers that transcend the boundaries imposed by time and space. For believers, they are the Word of God expressed in human words, and through these words of life, the Holy Spirit introduces believers to the knowledge of complete truth in such a way that the Word of Christ dwells in believers in all its richness (Bible. Gospel according to John 14:26; 16:12.15). In this paper, the following were used: Bible - Old and New Testament. Christian present. Zagreb. 2000; Croatian Bible - BIBLE Translation KS Old and New Testament - Copyright by Kršćanskasadašnjost, Zagreb 1988. (below: Bible); La Bibbia. Ancient testament. La Bibblioteca di Repubblica. EdizioniPiemme. Roma in 1988, edited by the Jesuits from “Civilta’ Cattolica” (Hereinafter: La Bibbia), some reviews and comments by famous theologians, experts in the Bible and other texts that are in some way connected with the Bible. Human aging is a complex process that is not yet fully understood by science. One of its indicators is the length of telomeres, which are located at the ends of chromosomes.
  2. Bible. Gospel according to Luke 18:27.
  3. Man in Hebrew, Adam, is a common name for the human species, not for an individual, according to La Bibbia. p. 33.
  4. The Church, strictly speaking, does not consider Christianity a “new” religion. Together with Israel, it is considered the inheritor of the monotheistic faith of the Old Testament, worshipers of the same God “Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.” The New Testament is not an absolute beginning, it is only the “fulfillment” (fundamental category) of the Old” (See link: https://it.aleteia.org/2018/09/05/gesu-fonda-nuova-religione-risposte/ (Downloaded:20/10/2023).See link: https://stswithuns.org.uk/bible-and-catholics-philip-kosloski/ (Retrieved: 20/07/2023).Historical evidence shows that Jesus did not found any new religion. In fact, after his crucifixion, his disciples continued to attend synagogues because they still considered themselves Jews. But the self-proclaimed apostle Paul, after a spectacular conversion of soul and body, devoted himself to spreading his new faith and created the movement we know today as Christianity. Paul was born shortly after Jesus (he did not know him personally), more or less between the fifth and tenth years of our era, in the Turkish city of Tarsus in a wealthy family of Pharisee Jews who belonged to the tribe of Benjamin. Born a Greek Jew with Roman citizenship, his education imbued him with Hellenistic, Roman and the Jewish cultural triad, which will be very useful to him in the future. Like all citizens of his time, he had two names: Saul, his Jewish name, (which means called), and Paulus, his Roman name. Paul knew how to be skillful and did not associate his new faith with leaving Judaism, but, on the contrary, associated it with its growth, which motivated the traditionalist Jewish leaders to brand him as an apostate, and the doctrine of Jesus as a heresy (See link: https://www.nuevatribuna.es/articulo/sociedad/jesus-nazaret-fundo-cristianismo-religion-judaismo-iglesia/20210916131055191089. html. Accessed 10/20/2023).
  5. The Book of Genesis is based on three sources; To the Yahwistic tradition, the Elohistic tradition and the tradition of the priestly order. The Bible, p27.
  6. The Bible. Book of Genesis, 2:15–17.
  7. The Bible. Book of Genesis, 3:17–19. “And he said to the man: Because you listened to the voice of your wife and ate from the tree from which I forbade you to eat, saying: You must not eat from it! - here: May the Earth be cursed because of you: you will be fed from it with effort all your days.”
  8. The Bible. Book of Genesis, 3:17–19. “And he said to the man: Because you listened to the voice of your wife and ate from the tree from which I forbade you to eat, saying: You must not eat from it! - here: May the Earth be cursed because of you: you will be fed from it with effort all your days.”
  9. Bible course. GOD'S PLAN FOR MAN. 8. Lesson. http://dawnbible.com/hr/booklets/planforman.htm (Accessed: 17.07. 2023).
  10. The Bible. Book of Genesis 3:22. The tree of good and evil symbolizes this attribute that belongs to the Creator, which is why God is the foundation of the moral order. Man tries to usurp this attribute of God (Bible. Book of. Genesis 3:5, 22) wanting to determine for himself what is good and what is evil for him (La Bibbia...p. 33).
  11. The Bible. The book of Genesis. 2:17. “But you haven't eaten from the tree of knowledge of good and evil! The day you taste it, you will surely die!”.
  12. The Bible. Second Epistle of Peter. 3:6. “In the same way, the world of that time perishes under water.”
  13. The Bible. Second Epistle of Peter. 3:6. “In the same way, the world of that time perishes under water.”
  14. The Bible. The book of Genesis. 3:22, 23.
  15. Croatian bishops’ conference. Man created “in the image of God” - his greatness and calling - HBK Council for the Doctrine of the Faith. See link: https://hbk.hr/dokumenti-hbk/covjek-stvoren-na-sliku-bozju-njegova-velicina-i-poziv-vijece-hbk-za-nauk-vjere/. Zagreb 2019(Accessed: 10.07.2023).
  16. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:27.
  17. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:1–32.
  18. The Bible. Book of Genesis 11:10–32.
  19. “Got Questions Ministries” consists of dedicated and trained ministers who have a desire to help others in their understanding of God, the Holy Scriptures, salvation and other spiritual topics. They are Christians, Protestants, evangelicals, theological conservatives.., a para-church ministry, which comes alongside the Church to help people find answers to their spiritually related questions. See link: https://www.gotquestions.org/about.html (Accessed: 06.08. 2023).
  20. The same.
  21. See link: https://www.gotquestions.org/Hrvatski/Postanak-dugi-zivoti.html (Accessed: 19/07/2023).
  22. See link: https://biblijaiznanost.net/kako-je-izgledala-zemlja-prije-potopa/ (Accessed: 07/19/2023).
  23. See link: https://biblijaiznanost.net/kako-je-izgledala-zemlja-prije-potopa/ (Accessed: 07/19/2023).
  24. The Bible. Psalms 90:10. “The sum of our years is seventy years, if we are strong, and eighty; and most of them are torment and nothingness: for they pass quickly and we fly from here.”
  25. The Bible. Epistle to the Romans. 6:23.
  26. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:5.
  27. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:8.
  28. Bible. Book of Genesis 5:11.
  29. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:14.
  30. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:17.
  31. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:20.
  32. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:23–24.
  33. The Bible. Book of Genesis 5:31.
  34. The Bible. Book of Genesis 7:11.
  35. Biblical scholars offer numerous theories as to why Methuselah lived so long. One is that the antediluvian patriarchs were only a few generations removed from Adam and Eve, the genetically perfect couple. They would have unusually strong immunity from diseases and life-threatening conditions. Another theory suggests that early in human history, people lived longer so they could populate the Earth. See the link; https://www.learnreligions.com/methuselah-oldest-man-who-ever-lived-701188. (Accessed: 20.07. 2023).
  36. The Bible. Genesis 5:27.
  37. See link: https://www.gotquestions.org/oldest-man-in-the-Bible.html (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  38. Enoch never died because God “took” him. Bible. Book of Genesis 5:23.
  39. See link; https://answersingenesis.org/bible-timeline/genealogy/did-adam-and-noah-really-live-over-900-years/ (Accessed: 07/20/2023).
  40. See link; https://answersingenesis.org/bible-timeline/genealogy/did-adam-and-noah-really-live-over-900-years/ (Accessed: 07/20/2023).
  41. Henry MMorris and John C. Whitcomb “The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and its Scientific Implications.” USA. Paperback – September 1, 2011 Henry Madison Morris was an American creationist, Christian apologist, and engineer. He was one of the founders of the Creation Research Society and the Creation Research Institute. Many consider him “the father of modern creation science.” He co-authored The GenesisFlood with John C. Whitcomb in 1961. (Wikipedia).John C. Whitcomb, is an American theologian who influenced many conservative American Christians to accept flood geology. The Genesis Flood: The Biblical Record and its Scientific Implications. See link: https://www.amazon.com/Genesis-Flood-50th-Anniversary/dp/159638395XVidi (Accessed: 22.07.2023).
  42. William R. Wis. “Medical Science and the Bible,” Modern Science and Christian Faith (2d ed. Wheaton: Van Kampen Press, 1950), p. 242. William R. Vis is a member of the American Medical Association and the American College of Physicians.
  43. See link: https://www.chabad.org/parshah/article_cdo/aid/1703178/jewish/Why-Did-People-in-the-First-Millennia-Live-for-So-Long.htm (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  44. See link: https://www.desiringgod.org/interviews/why-did-the-first-humans-live-for-so-long (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  45. For this reason, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and by the fact that all sinned, death spread to all men... Indeed, until the law there was sin in the world, but sin is not counted when there is no law. Yes, but death really reigned from Adam to Moses and over those who did not sin with a transgression similar to Adam, who is the prototype of the One who is to come. Bible. Epistle to Romans 5:12–14.
  46. Bible. Book of Genesis 2:17 “But you did not eat from the tree of knowledge of good and evil! The day you taste it, you will surely die!.”
  47. Bible. Psalms 39:4–5. “My heart was burning, at the very thought a fire would break out; then I spoke in my own language: “Announce to me, Jehovah, my end and what is the measure of my days, that I may know that I am nothing.”
  48. Joseph Flavius (Latin Flavius Iosephus, real name Josef ben Matatias), Jewish historian (Jerusalem, 37/38 – Rome, ca. 100). Pharisee, in the service of the Jerusalem temple, sent to Rome to rescue the priests imprisoned by the procurator of Galilee. See Link: https://www.enciklopedija.hr/natuknica.aspx?ID=29352 (Accessed: 24.07.2023).
  49. Mauro Biligno. Old and New Testament - books without God. TELE disc. Zagreb. in 2019.
  50. Edward McIlmail, teaches theology and Scripture at Mater Ecclesiae Collegein Greenville, RI, and serves as chaplain at Overbrook Academyin Warwick, RI. He graduated from Holy Apostles College and Seminary in Connecticut, Regina ApostolorumAthenaeum in Rome and Northwestern University in Illinois.
  51. See link: https://it.aleteia.org/2019/09/25/se-noe-ha-vissuto-davvero-950-anni-come-dice-la-bibbia/ (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  52. Biligno is an Italian essayist, researcher of the history of religions and translator from ancient Hebrew. He worked as a translator from ancient Hebrew for the Vatican publishing house Edizioni San Paolo. For them, from the Masoretic texts, there are seventeen original books of the Bible.
  53. Mauro Biglino.iL LIBRO CHE CAMBIERÀ PER SEMPRE LE NOSTRE IDEE SULLA BIBBIA - GLI DEI CHE GIUNSERO DALLO SPAZIO? Infinito. 2009.
  54. Biligno Mauro. AND THE GIANTS OF NELLA BIBBIA... E NON SOLO. Culture, Paleontologia, Giuseppe di Re. 29.03. in 2017.
  55. Mauro Biligno. Old and New Testament - books without God. TELE disc. Zagreb. 2019. P. 51.
  56. Bible. Exodus 20:12.
  57. Bible. Epistle to the Ephesians 6,3.
  58. Bible. Book of Genesis 6,3.
  59. See link: https://knowingscripture.com/articles/why-do-human-life spans-not-reach-120-years-genesis-63 (Accessed: 07/10/2023).
  60. Bible. Epistle to Romans 7:14–16.
  61. Kamal Suleiman Salibi Lebanese historian, professor of history at the American University in Beirut and founding director (later honorary president) of the Royal Institute for Interfaith. Studies in Amman, Jordan. Salibi comes from a Christian Lebanese family.
  62. Bible. The book of Genesis. 6:3.
  63. The Masoretes were a group of Jewish scribes-scientists who were active approximately from the end of the 5th to the 10th century AD. e., mainly based in medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq. (Wikipedia - English). (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  64. See link: https://www.myuforesearch.it/language/it/perche-fu-mandato-il-diluvio-universale/ (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  65. Bible. Book of Genesis 11; 10–32.
  66. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:3.
  67. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:3.
  68. Daniele Salamone: biblical scholar as well as Hebrew scholar, writer, independent researcher, blogger and essayist, who for almost ten years, with his devotion and passion for the Word of God, has been giving countless and concrete answers to what today has become a confused world, more and more in search of the truth.
  69. DANIEL SALAMON. Elohìm ha realemente accorciato la vita agliuominioppuresitratta di un semplice “contoallarovescia”? 29.12.2014. See the link: https://danielesalamone.altervista.org/bereshit-prncipio-presunte-contraddizioni-nella-bibbia-elohim-ha-realmente-accorciato-la-vita-agli-uomini-oppure-si-tratta-di-un -semplice-conto-alla-rovescia/ (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  70. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:3.
  71. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:1–3.
  72. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:5–7.
  73. DANIEL SALAMON. Elohìm ha realemente accorciato la vita agliuominioppuresitratta di un semplice “contoallarovescia”? 29.12.2014. See the link: https://danielesalamone.altervista.org/bereshit-prncipio-presunte-contraddizioni-nella-bibbia-elohim-ha-realmente-accorciato-la-vita-agli-uomini-oppure-si-tratta-di-un -semplice-conto-alla-rovescia/ (Accessed: 20.07.2023).
  74. Bible. Romans 8:22.
  75. Bible. Romans 6:23. “Because the wages of sin is death, and the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus, our Lord.”
  76. Bible. Romans 6:23. “Because the wages of sin is death, and the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus, our Lord.”
  77. Bible. Romans 5:12.” Bible. Romans 5:12. “Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man and death through sin, and because all sinned, death spread to all men.”
  78. Bibles. Book of Genesis 2,9.
  79. Book of Genesis 1:10,12,18,21,25.
  80. Bible. Genesis 1:31.
  81. Bible. The book of Genesis. 2,17.
  82. Bible. Epistle to the Romans 5:12.
  83. Bible. Book of Genesis 3:22.
  84. Bible. Psalms 82;6. “Asafov. God stands up in the assembly of “gods”, in the midst of “gods” he holds court. How long will you judge wrongly, go to the hands of the wicked? Protect the weak and the poor, restore justice to the poor and needy!. Deliver the oppressed and the poor: tear him out of the hands of the wicked!” I said though: “You are gods and you are all sons of the Most High! But you will die like all men, you will fall like any of the great ones!”.
  85. Bible. The book of Genesis. 3,22.
  86. Saint Augustine was the most influential ancient Christian thinker whose thought significantly permeated Western philosophy and Christian theology. He is a saint of the Catholic Church and a theological authority. His way of looking at sin, grace, free will and sexuality is hard to get past.
  87. Pelagius the Briton (354–427) was born in Britain and was baptized in Rome between 380 and 394. He lived in Rome for a long time as one of the most influential and listened voices of his time as a monk and theologian of great culture, respected by many, and even by St. Augustine, who would later become his greatest opponent. According to Pelagius, people were not predestined, but could, on the contrary, by a decision of their own will (liberum arbitrium) and by prayers and good deeds, avoid sin and achieve eternal salvation. Therefore, intervention of God's grace was not necessary.https://patrologija.com/tema-23-latinski-pisci-iv-stoljece-i-pocetak-v/,28th November, 2023.
  88. https://patrologija.com/tema-23-latinski-pisci-iv-stoljece-i-pocetak-v/.
  89. The Vatican printed diary that covers the public activities of the Vatican, publishes the editions of important church figures and prints official Vatican documents, after they have been officially published.
  90. https://www.osservatoreromano.va/it/news/2023-10/quo-248/l-esperienza-del-peccato.html, 28th November, 2023.
  91. Santiago Sanz. TEMA 7. Supernatural ascension and original sin. https://opusdei.org/it/article/tema-7-lelevazione-soprannaturale-e-il-peccato-originale/, 28th November, 2023.
  92. Padre Angelo. https://www.amicidomenicani.it/in-che-cosa-consiste-precisamente-il-peccato-originale-e-come-si-trasmette/, 28th November, 2023.
  93. From a legal point of view, “Opus Dei” is the personal prelature of the Catholic Church. Pope John Paul II elevated “Opus Dei” to a Personal Prelature of international scope, based on the Apostolic Constitution Ut sit, 28. November 1982.
  94. https://www.jw.org/it/cosa-dice-la-Bibbia/domande/peccato-originale/#link1. 28th November, 2023.
  95. Bible. Book of Genesis 7:11. “On that day - the sixth year of Noah's life, the second month, the seventeenth day of the month - all the springs of the abyss burst forth, the foundations of heaven were dissolved.”
  96. https://hermeneutics.stackexchange.com/questions/21005/120-years-until-the-flood-or-until-adams-death-or-shorter-life spans-from-now. 28th November, 2023.
  97. Bible. Book of Genesis 7:11. “On that day - the sixth year of Noah's life, the second month, the seventeenth day of the month - all the springs of the abyss burst forth, the foundations of heaven were dissolved.”
  98. Bible. Book of Genesis 2:6. “Nevertheless, water gushed out of the ground and soaked the entire surface of the earth.”
  99. Bible. Book of Genesis 7:11–24.
  100. Bible. Second Epistle of Peter 3:6–7.
  101. Bible. Book of Genesis 2:6. “Nevertheless, water gushed out of the ground and soaked the entire surface of the earth.”
  102. Noah among different peoples. This man is known in myths around the world under various names: Noa (Noah) in the Bible, Utnapistim in the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh, Ziusudra among the Sumerians, Cox Cox among the Aztecs, Powaco among the Delaware Indians, Manu Yaivasat in Hindustan, Dwytach among the Celts, SzeKha for the Patagonians, Noah for the Amazonians, Nu-u in Hawaii, Nuwah for the Chinese... even with unusual assonances in the names. The Egyptians attribute this desire to wipe out humanity to Thoth. The Book of the Dead makes the God say: “I will erase everything I have created. The Earth will enter the abyss of the waters of the flood and will return to peace as at the time of the beginning.” Mauro Biglino. iL LIBRO CHE CAMBIERÀ PER SEMPER LE NOSTRE IDEESULLA BIBBIA GLI DEI CHE GIUNSERO DALLO SPAZIO?InfinitoEditori. 2010. In short, all mankind remembers of this event first told by the Sumerians, i.e. those who had the privilege to walk with the “gods”, to live with them, after life to even get the tools to continue autonomously, on a path that would produce the civil and cultural evolution of man.
  103. Link: https://www.biblestudy.org/basicart/why-man-lived-longer-before-flood.html (Accessed: 17/,07.2023).
  104. Henze Matthias. The Jesus Reader: Extra-biblical writings help to understand Jesus. KruZak. Zagreb 2018. Str. 100.
  105. Bible. Baruch 3:16–28.
  106. In the Old Testament they are often mentioned as Nephilim. See the link: https://www.scribd.com/book/510752345/Il-Libro-che-Cambiera-per-Sempre-le-Nostre-Idee-sulla-Bibbia-Gli-Dei-che-giunsero-dallo-spazio (Accessed: 23.07.2023).
  107. Bible. Book of Numbers 13:33.
  108. The Nephilim were giants, violent superhuman descendants dating back to the days of Noah, when evil angels married women. These ‘sons of God’ were spiritual creatures who rebelled against him when they ‘left their abode’ in heaven, materialized in human bodies and ‘took as many wives as they wanted’ (Jude 6; Genesis 6:2).). The Nephilim, the hybrid beings who were born from that unnatural union, were different from all other people (Bible. Book of Genesis 6:4). They were haughty and arrogant giants who filled the Earth with violence (Bible. Book of Genesis 6:13). The Bible describes them as “mighty men of old, men of renown” (Bible. Book of Genesis 6:4. They left a trail of violence and terror behind them (Bible. Book of Genesis 6:5. Book of Numbers 13:33. Their fathers are called “sons of the true God” (Book of Genesis 6:2). The Bible uses this term to define angels (Bible. Book of Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:7). Angels had the power to materialize and take human form (Bible (Genesis 19:1-5, Joshua 5:13–15).
  109. Bible. Book of Genesis 6:11–22.
  110. “From the ranks of the Philistines came a challenger. His name was Goliath, and he was from Gath. He was six cubits and one foot high.” Bible. The first book of Samuel 17:4.
  111. Bible. Second book of Samuel 21:20.
  112. Julia received her master's degree and studied at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (religious studies), the Institute of Philosophy and History in Tallinn (Estonia) and the University of Tartu (Estonia). She teaches and writes on early Christian studies, the Jewish background of the New Testament, and incorporating Hebrew insights into Bible study. She teaches two courses, The Discovery of the Hebrew Bible and The Jewish Background of the New Testament, at the Israel Institute for Biblical Studies and writes Hebrew Insights for those courses. Julia lives with her family in the small town of Mevaseret Zion, near Jerusalem. See link: https://israelbiblicalstudies.com/de/teacher/julia-blum/ (Accessed: 20.07.2023)Bible. Second book of Samuel 21:20.
  113. link: https://noticias.labiblia.in/teologo-judio-revela-que-la-causa-del-diluvio-sucedio-a-causa-de-los-gigantes-nephilim/ (Pristupljeno: 25.07.2023).
  114. Henze Matthias. The Jesus Reader: Extra-biblical writings help to understand Jesus. KruZak. Zagreb 2018. Str. 99.
  115. Henze Matthias. The Jesus Reader: Extra-biblical writings help to understand Jesus. KruZak. Zagreb 2018... p. 102.
  116. Bible. Second Corinthians 4:4.
  117. Bible. Gospel according to John 8:44. “Your father is the devil and you will do the desires of your father. He was a murderer from the beginning and did not stand in the truth because there is no truth in him: when he speaks a lie, he speaks from his own because he is a liar and the father of lies.”
  118. Bible. Second Timothy 2:26.
  119. Bible. The first book of John 5:19.
  120. Bible. Ephesians 2:2.
  121. Bible. The first book of Samuel p.230.
  122. Bible. Gospel according to Mark II. 32.
  123. Bible. Gospel according to Luke 11:15.
  124. Henze Matthias. The Jesus Reader: Extra-biblical writings help to understand Jesus. KruZak. Zagreb 2018... p. 88.
  125. He was a leading conservative Jewish scholar in the United States. He studied in Berlin, Strasbourg and Heidelberg, received his doctorate in Heidelberg in 1898. Phil. received his doctorate and went to the USA in 1899. Ginzberg was a contributor to the Jewish Encyclopedia, and from 1902 a professor of Talmud and rabbinic science at the Jewish Theological College in New York. He taught there for more than fifty years and during his lifetime wrote hundreds of books on Talmudic and rabbinical subjects.
  126. Hugh Norman Ross is a Canadian astrophysicist, Christian apologist and old Earth creationist. Ross earned his Ph.D. in Astronomy from the University of Toronto and received a B.A. in Physics from the University of British Columbia. He founded his own ministry in 1986 called Reasons to Believe.
  127. Bible. Book of Wisdom 2:1–9.
  128. Bible. The Book of Wisdom 4:7–10.
  129. Ovadia ben Jacob Sforno was an Italian rabbi, biblical commentator, philosopher and physician. A member of the Sforno family, he was born in Cesena around 1475 and died in Bologna in 1550. (Wikipedia).
  130. Bible. Isaiah 66:22.
  131. See link: https://www.sefaria.org/Sforno_on_Genesis.9.4?lang=bi (Accessed: 23.07.2023).
  132. Bible. Gospel according to Luke 12:25.
  133. Bible. Gospel according to Luke 18:27.
  134. Bible. Romans 5:12.
  135. Bible. Psalms 139:14.
  136. Irun R. Cohen. “Rain and resurrection - Talmud and science interpret the world.” KruZak. Zagreb. 2027. Page 179.
  137. Irun R. Cohen. “Rain and resurrection - Talmud and science interpret the world.” KruZak. Zagreb. 2027. Page 179.
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