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VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2-4 ( April-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


COVID-19: Cardiovascular Disorders

Emir Fazlibegović

Keywords : Acute myocardial infarction, Cardiovascular disorders, Comorbidities, Coronavirus disease 2019

Citation Information : Fazlibegović E. COVID-19: Cardiovascular Disorders. 2022; 1 (2-4):221-228.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11005-0021

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-03-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) infection has spread all over the world and caused a global health and economic crisis, so we will talk about the “time before COVID” and probably the “time after COVID.” Although the virus most often attacks the respiratory system, respiratory diseases, especially severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are the main cause of mortality in patients with COVID-19 infection, followed by damage to the myocardium and complete cardiovascular system, which is a common finding in patients. The association between COVID-19 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is interpreted as impaired immunity with enhanced inflammatory response and development of endothelium with procoagulant disorders such as thrombosis and thromboembolism with sequelae on the heart, brain, pulmonary and peripheral arteries. Endothelial dysfunction develops with myocardial damage with the instability of atherosclerotic plaque, its fissure and rupture, and AMI. Comorbid conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and kidney disease further exacerbate the severity and outcome of the disease. Air pollution also significantly contributes to the clinical picture of the disease and complicates COVID-19 infection with the development of cardiovascular complications of the AMI, with cardiac decompensation, malignant cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis, and pericarditis that contribute to clinical severity and mortality. There was a lower influx of patients to cardiology departments and coronary units, and emergency services during the epidemic wave by 30–48% depending on the region-country in the world, but also an increase in the severity of the clinical picture and higher mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD). The reasons for this phenomenon are mostly unknown. It is assumed that it is a matter of fear, “lockdown,” self-isolation, and delay in attending the doctor, which prolongs the time of ischemia and loses the “golden hour” to reperfusion of AMI patients, which is also contributed by antiepidemic measures with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) testing and personal protection measures. Staff in cat laboratories prolong the door-balloon time and thus cause more serious heart damage.

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