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VOLUME 1 , ISSUE 2-4 ( April-December, 2022 ) > List of Articles


Inclusivism and Tolerance

Ivan Andrijanić

Keywords : Exclusivism, Hinduism, Inclusivism, Intolerance, Tolerance

Citation Information : Andrijanić I. Inclusivism and Tolerance. 2022; 1 (2-4):180-185.

DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-11005-0034

License: CC BY-NC 4.0

Published Online: 20-03-2023

Copyright Statement:  Copyright © 2022; The Author(s).


In this paper, Paul Hacker's idea of inclusivism and its distinction from tolerance will be problematized; but not before the very notion and idea of tolerance are discussed, that might actually be conditioned by modern worldview and experience. Paul Hacker argues that Hinduism is not tolerant but an inclusivist religion and that a tolerant religion can only be one where a clear difference between ”itself” and ”other” is established. The article will present examples of Bhagavadgītā, which corresponds to Hacker's notion of inclusiveness, and the example of Dārā Šukūh, which corresponds to the concept of tolerance. However, while tolerance is a concept developed in the Western cultural and religious milieu, in Hinduism, there are many examples of inclusivism without the hierarchization of included concepts. That is why this paper would propose to postulate two types of inclusivism, one with hierarchy and the other without. An example of inclusivism without hierarchization might be Ramakrishna. The conclusion is that the situation is complex and that both types of inclusivism, the one with hierarchization and the one without, have the potential to regulate the daily practice of toleration in society.

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